Buying Fiume stamps without a valid examination is the most expensive buying.
The stamps of Rijeka were exceptionally often forged, due to rarity and great demand of stamps of the states formed after the collapse of the great empires. As for Rijeka, the political message on stamps, as well as small printing run were important. Pressured by philatelic and trade markets in Switzerland and Italy, the first forgeries were found already in times of the first temporary issues. It's important to bear in mind that the originality of a stamp or a postmark, or the age of a collection aren't sufficient for an average originality evaluation. Many forged stamps have a signature overleaf or a marks of former traders or even stamp examiners who, on purpose or by accident, marked forged stamps as originals. The most frequent and known marks on forgeries are PAPE and PETRIC. Every stamp has to be examined, because even the least values were forged, from the basic stamp to various overprints on them. The best method is the comparison to the original stamps, because some forgeries are of bad workmanship, so that even a less trained eye can tell the difference. The biggest problems are created by the FIUME overprint forgeries on Hungarian stamps, and the easiest to recognize is a part of forgeries of ordinary and commemorative issues having neither the roughness nor the structure of the paper as on the original stamp, save the color and the print.
The elaborated samples and pictures are only the most frequent forgeries, regularly found in auctions and traders. Various Internet auctions or sight unseen auctions are particularly dangerous because of no possibilities of sending a big enough picture showing recognizable forgeries. Many professional traders and auction houses don't possess valid attests and they sell forgeries, convinced the stamps were original. If it's possible in any way, it is advisable to see every stamp with your naked eye, because low-quality scanning or photocopying can hide lots of details. There are very successful forgeries of some rare issues. Since the number of forgeries is expected to grow by technology improvement, it's impossible to close this chapter. The reason enough to be more cautious is that the catalog price of the stamps of Rijeka increases from one year to the next. At any larger purchase, I recommend the examination of stamps by official examiners of the stamps of Rijeka.
The characteristics of forgeries can be found in the book.
A multi-layered history of Rijeka reflected on philately. Stamp collecting gives us an interesting historical cross-section view of a place, its political, social and economic importance in time. read more
By the order of the Italian National Council, Hungarian stamps were overprinted from December 3 to 23, 1918. There are two types of the machine -made overprints and six basic types of the hand overprints. read more
Ordinal numbers, different types of stamps, perforating and overprint errors with examples, postal history and prices for unused stamps (MNH and MH) and stamps on letters are available in a book. read more